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Table Of Contents

Acknowledgments
Introduction: Turning the Circus Inside Out
1. Why Elephants in the Early Republic?
2. Becoming an Elephant "Actor"
3. Learning to Take Direction
4. Punishing Bull Elephants
5. Herd Management in the Gilded Age
6. Going Off Script
7. Animal Cultures Lost in the Circus, Then and Now
Notes
Essay on Sources
Index