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Table Of Contents

List of Figures and Tables
Acknowledgments
Introduction: Floods and History
Chapter One
Floods in Ancient Rome: Sources and Topography
Floods and the Foundation of Rome
Primary Source Descriptions of Floods in Ancient Rome
Geographic Extent of Floods Based on Primary Sources
The Topography of Rome and Floods
Maps of Hypothetical Floods of Different Magnitudes
Chapter Two
Characteristics of Floods
Flood Types and Basic Hydrology
Hydrology of the Tiber and the Tiber Drainage Basin
Duration of Floods at Rome
Seasonality of Floods at Rome
Frequency of Floods at Rome
Magnitude of Floods at Rome
Conclusion
Chapter Three
Immediate Effects of Floods
Introduction and Methodology
Disruption of the Daily Life of the City
Destruction of Property
Collapse of Structures
Injuries and Drowning
Cleaning Up after a Flood: Water, Mud, Debris, Corpses
Chapter Four
Delayed Effects of Floods
Weakened Buildings
Food Spoilage and Famine
Disease
Psychological Trauma
Recovery and Reconstruction
Chapter Five
Methods of Flood Control
Drain: The Roman Sewers
Fill: Attempts to Raise Ground Level
Divert: Canals and Channel Modification Schemes
Contain: Roman Embankments
Administrative Oversight of the Tiber
Chapter Six
Roman Attitudes toward Floods
Floods and the Urban Fabric of Ancient Rome: Public Buildings
Floods and the Urban Fabric of Ancient Rome: Housing
Water and the Gods
Floods and the Gods: Portents and Divine Anger
Flood Reports: Context and Causation
Flood Prevention: Costs and Benefits
Conclusion: The Romans' Failure to Make Rome Safe from Floods
Appendix I: List of Major Floods at Rome, 414 BC–AD 2000
Appendix II: The Modern Tiber Embankments
Appendix III: A Note on Hydrological Sources
Notes
Bibliography
Index