Introduction: Eurasianism—Marginal or Mainstream in Contemporary Russia?
The Historical Roots of the Eurasianist Idea
Neo-Eurasianism and Its Place in Post-Soviet Russia
Neo-Eurasianist Doctrine and Russian Foreign Policy
Marginal or Mainstream?
Premises of This Study
Plan of the Book
1. Early Eurasianism, 1920–1930
The Life and Death of a Current of Thought
A Philosophy of Politics
A Geographic Ideology
An Ambiguous Orientalism
2. Lev Gumilëv: A Theory of Ethnicity?
From Dissidence to Public Endorsement: An Atypical Biography
"The Last Eurasianist"?
Gumilëv's Episteme: Subjecting the Humanities to the Natural Sciences
Theories of the Ethnos or Naturalistic Determinism
The Complex History of the Eurasian Totality
Xenophobia, Mixophobia, and Anti-Semitism
Gumilëv, Russian Nationalism, and Soviet Ethnology
3. Aleksandr Panarin: Philosophy of History and the Revival of Culturalism
Is There a Unified Neo-Eurasianist Theory?
From Liberalism to Conservatism: Panarin's Intellectual Biography
"Civilizationism" and "Postmodernism"
Rehabilitating Empire: "Civilizational" Pluralism and Ecumenical Theocracy
Highlighting Russia's "Internal East"
4. Aleksandr Dugin: A Russian Version of the European Radical Right?
Dugin's Social Trajectory and Its Significance
A Russian Version of Antiglobalism: Dugin's Geopolitical Theories
Traditionalism as the Foundation of Dugin's Thought
The Russian Proponent of the New Right?
Fascism, Conservative Revolution, and National Bolshevism
A Veiled Anti-Semitism
Ethno-Differentialism and the Idea of Russian Distinctiveness
5. The View from "Within": Non-Russian Neo-Eurasianism and Islam
The Emergence of Muslim Eurasianist Political Parties
The Eurasianist Games of the Russian Muftiates
Tatarstan: The Pragmatic Eurasianism of Russia's "Ethnic" Regions
6. Neo-Eurasianism in Kazakhstan and Turkey
Kazakhstan: Eurasianism in Power
The Turkish Case: On the Confusion between Turkism, Pan-Turkism, and Eurasianism
Conclusion: The Evolution of the Eurasian(ist) Idea
The Unity of Eurasianism
Organicism at the Service of Authoritarianism: "Revolution" or "Conservatism"?
Nationalism: Veiled or Openly Espoused: The Cultural Racism of Eurasianism
Science, Political Movement, or Think Tank?
Is Eurasianism Relevant to Explanations of Contemporary Geopolitical Change?
Psychological Compensation or Part of a Global Phenomenon?
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